Yup'ik women made clothes and footwear from animal skins (especially hide and fur of marine and land mammals for fur clothing, sometimes birds, also fish), sewn together using needles made from animal bones, walrus ivory, and bird bones such as the front part of a crane's foot and threads made from other animal products, such as sinew.  The tengqucuk is a tip of parka hood; the kak’acuk is a pompon on tip of parka hood or hat; the kakauyaq is a decoration at the crown of the hood of a young woman's traditional Yup’ik parka that consists of strands of red, black, and, white beads or strips of calfskin; the menglairun is a strip of fur between the ruff and hood of a parka. A round needle was used because a triangular needle would split the skin..  Also, made of squirrel bone. Pattern (cuqcaun, cuqcissuun, cuqyun in Yup'ik and Cup'ik, cuqciss'un in Cup'ig; "gunsight; ruler; pattern; measuring device; measurement"). Mainland furs that have been used in recent times but not in the past include ground squirrels received from the people of Nelson Island who, in turn, obtained them from the Kuskokwim River, and wolverine used primarily for trim. The words anorak and parka have been used interchangeably, but they are somewhat different garments. Parkas were made from a wide variety of materials including reindeer, squirrel, muskrat, bird, and fish skins, as well as intestines. Decorated ceremonial fancy glove is aiggaqtaaq or aaggaqtaaq. In Inuktitut, the traditional word for “parka” is “atigi”. Separate hood (yuraryaraq in Yup'ik) used with hoodless parka. Children's clothing (mikelnguut aturait) was made of soft skin of younger animals. The word anorak comes from the Greenlandic (Kalaallisut) word annoraaq. Bird skins make very good and warm parkas. It features a removable quilted liner made of light nylon / polyester batting which are modern synthetic materials. Among the Yup'ik, traditional style women's parkas are still made and worn on festive occasions. "Anorak" redirects here. The mother can bring the child from back to front for breastfeeding or for eliminatory functions without exposure to the elements. Black bear (Ursus americanus). Fish skin was also used to make parkas, mittens, and pants for summer use. In the late 1980s the snorkel parka came to be associated in the UK with trainspotters, who would supposedly wear them, giving birth to the slang term there anorak. The inner parka will be added, with the fur facing our body (yes, we’ll need a shirt or other kind of lining! , Qaliluk (qaliluk sg qaliluuk dual qaliluut pl in Yup'ik, qalilurrlugar in Cup'ig) is man's hoodless caribou-skin or reindeer-skin parka. Fish (neqa sg neqek dual neqet pl in Yup'ik and Cup'ik neqa or iqallug in Cup'ig) is one of the most common Yup'ik foods. These patterns all follow a few rules. It is worn by both men and women, but men's boots are larger than women's. History of the Parka. The Greenlandic Inuit (Kalaallit, Tunumiit, and Inughuit), the Canadian Inuit, and the Alaskan Iñupiat and Yup’ik usually wear a parka style which has an attached hood with a fur ruff to protect the face. , Skin or Hide (amiq sg amiik dual amiit pl in Yup'ik and Cup'ik, amir in Cup'ig).  Boot soles were occasionally cut from old kayak covers that had been made from bearded seal skins. When translated into English, the Inuktitut word “atigi” means “parka”. Long waterproof dehaired sealskin or fish-skin (salmon-skin) mitten is (arilluk sg arilluuk dual arilluut pl, arin in Yup'ik, arillugar in Cup'ig). Red-fox and white-fox skin parkas were warm. In 1984, The Observer used the term to refer to the type of people who wore it and subsequently, in the United Kingdom, it is sometimes used as a mildly derogatory term. On older parkas, the border was lined with a band of calfskin with fine decorative stitching, symbolizing footprints on snow. This was dropped for the M-51 onward. — Adlak. Fur from land animals was warmer than other kinds of skin. Robert Redford, the actor, attempted to make a movie about Apanuugpak, "The Winter Warrior.  The shell thimbles are used by Yup'iks." Needle or sewing needle (mingqun sg mingqutek dual mingqutet pl in Yup'ik and Cup'ik, cikur in Cup'ig) is main tool for to sew (mingqe- in Yup'ik, Cup'ik, and Cup'ig) In the past Alaska Eskimo usually carved fine sewing needles out of walrus ivory or split them from bird bones.  Significantly, the Yup'ik Eskimos categorize the Apanuugpak stories as historical narratives (qanemcit) rather than mythical tales (qulirat). These hoods are usually trimmed with an Arctic fox tail, or a broad strip of wolf or wolverine fur. A girl could only become a wife after she learned to sew. These hoods are made of squirrel-skin  or strips of dyed fish skin. The pockets were wool lined both inside and out. Metal, ivory, or skin thimbles are worn on a seanstress's index finger to provide protection from needles. former times, being worn by people of all ages and both sexes. Ce parka 3 dans 1 peut être porté comme coquille extérieure seulement, laine de couverture seulement, ou coquille sur la laine de couverture. The basic N-3B parka design was copied and sold to the civilian market by many manufacturers with varying degrees of quality and faithfulness to the original government specifications. Earlier Vietnam-era hoods had genuine fur ruffs; later versions used synthetic furs.  This boots made of caribou leg skins were sewn using the front of the caribou's back leg on the boot's front and the back of its front leg on the boot's back; this avoided the skin that was worn thin by the animal's habit of kneeling to forage.. Bitch dog in heat — Malikatâk. Traditional Yup'ik style kuspuks vary widely among villages. Terrestrial mammals or land mammals (nunarmiutaq sg nunarmiutaat pl in Yup'ik) are game animals and furbearers. Men wore fancy armbands around the upper arm when dancing without a parka. The Yup'ik tassels are, kayurun ~ kay'urrun ~ kasurun (wolverine-fur decoration on the upper part of parka sleeve), megcugtaq (piece of wolf fur on the tip of the shoulder or armpit tassels of certain traditional Yup’ik parkas, said to represent falling snowflakes in the winter, as a reminder to not waste food), pitgarcuun (tassel hanging from the armpit or just below the armpit of the traditional Yup'ik parka with red beads said to represent the blood of the legendary hero Apanuugpak (or Iluvaktuq ?) “It’s going to be my number one memory.” (Atigi is the Inuktitut word for “parka,” and Gordon was one of 14 seamstresses the company commissioned to create bespoke jackets for this exclusive collection.) Knee-high mukluk (kamguq sg kamguk dual kamgut pl in Yup'ik [Yukon]; often used in the dual) is knee-high or higher skin boot. Other Nunivaarmiut Cup'ig skin boots are, at'ar (Eskimo sealskin boot), ac'iqer (men's high skin fur Eskimo-boot), an'giuteg (men's Eskimo winter boots), ilutmurtar (men's boot sealskin for men with fur inside), qamquinar (men's high wading boot), unillugag (women's eskimo boots), yuunin (women's high skin boot), yuunillugar (women's old high skin boot), ac'upegglugar, acupegglugar (women's old high skin boot). adopted the orange lining and a slimmer fit when producing their VF59 model parka which is now more popular than the military version. Crane's foot needle (kakuun in Yup'ik and Cup'ik) is made from the front part of an uncooked crane's foot. Dried grasses became anything from insulating socks to bedding to sled rope, or even goggles to protect against snow blindness. Words related to parka coat , tunic , fur , sheath , raincoat , case , casing , hide , envelope , wrapper , threads , skin , folder , pelt , wrapping , capote , raglan , ulster , surtout , topcoat  The atkupiaq is the most popular type of woman's parka among the Yup'ik living along the Kuskokwim River and in the Kuskokwim Bay area.  The smoother inside of the gut would become the outside of the parka.  This knuckle is the middle [intermediate] phalanges of index finger and the “knuckle length” measure (not fingerbreadth) is a common unit in the Yup’ik measurement system. It was designed for use in areas with temperatures as low as −60 °F (−51 °C). There were never more than 823 Russians in the colony. Belts were held in place with a fastener.. In some versions, when rolled up, the hood doubles as a bag into which the rest of the coat is pushed. Strictly speaking, an anorak is a waterproof, hooded, pull-over jacket without a front opening, and sometimes drawstrings at the waist and cuffs, and a parka is a hip-length cold-weather coat, typically stuffed with down or very warm synthetic fiber, and with a fur-lined hood. For other uses, see, N-3B ("scrub snorkel" or "snorkel") parka, Brewers Dictionary of 20th Century Phrase and Fable, Portal:Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The Art and Technique of Inuit Clothing", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Parka&oldid=990974324, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from October 2020, All articles needing additional references, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 16:08. The back and palm were separate pieces and the thumb one piece; gloves were unknown. Animal carvings were added as hunting charms. Trousers or Pants (qerrulliik dual qerrulliit pl or ulruk dual [Bristol :Bay, Egegik] in Yup'ik and Cup'ik, qerrullig dual in Cup'ig) used from sealskin or fur. While taking a sweat bath, men protected their heads with a crude cap of puffin, eider duck, or murre skins. Parka trim pieces made primarily of white and black skin of caribou or reindeer, also now largely replaced by calfskin. A sealskin parka for a woman or man required five skins. Alaskan Eskimo mukluks are traditionally made with bearded seal skin soles and leg uppers of caribou trimmed with fur, but Alaskan Athabaskan mukluks are traditionally made of moose hide and trimmed with fur and beadwork. In the 1960s UK, the fishtail parka became a symbol of the mod subculture. With the Inuit people of Canada's Arctic region living in some of the planet's most extreme climates, the parka, like many pieces of outerwear, was originally designed to provide warmth for its wearer. These imported skins had been stretched, smoke-dried, and scaled. , Squirrel-skin parka (uulungiiq in Yup'ik) is a parka decorated with a fringe of squirrel bellies (uulungak). Bite off pieces with your teeth — Mikiak. ", Jerry Lipka and Dora Andrew-Ihrke (2009). The hide and sinew were commonly used as clothing, rope, nets, and for sewing. The M stands for model, and the number is the year it was standardized. She would compliment even our most clumsy efforts at … Reindeer … Caribou … What’s the Difference? Dried animal tendons known as sinew are used to make their clothing and footwear, and to sew bedding, tents and kayak covers. Trim, often rickrack, edges the hood, sleeves, and the single large pocket in the front. The kumegneq is parka ruff edging near the face. , Ulu, also Eskimo knife or woman's knife (uluaq in Yup'ik, kegginalek in Cup'ik, ulluar in Cup'ig) is multi-functional semilunar woman's knife.  In the past, dressing in fine fancy clothing was reserved for ceremonial events like festivals in the qasgiq, when animals and spirits (yua) were honored. baby bearded-seal gut (maklagaat qalirkait) were used for smoke-hole window..  Apanuugpak convinced villages that war was a futile and wasteful activity. The raw material resources are sea and land mammals, birds, fish and plants. Nunivaarmiut ac'iqer ciuqaleg (in Cup'ig) is men's fancy skin boot with wolverine in front. "malamute"), this is noted in this list only in the etymology.) Everyday functional items like skin mittens, mukluks, and jackets are commonly made today, but the elegant fancy parkas of traditional times are now rare. Originally made with a sage green DuPont flight silk nylon outer and lining it was padded with a wool blanket type material until the mid-1970s when the padding was changed to polyester wadding making the jacket both lighter and warmer. Thirty-four skins were necessary for a man's parka and 28 for a woman's. The word parka is derived from the Nenets language. A man's sealskin pants required two skins, and was not hemmed at the bottom. In 2020, the brand has teamed up with 18 Inuit designers from four Inuit regions in the country – Inuvialuit, Nunatsiavut, Nunavut and Nunavik – to create a custom capsule collection of 90 parkas. Skin thimbles are cut from shaved or bleached skins of bearded seals. Also known as Cup'ik clothing for the Chevak Cup'ik-speaking people of Chevak and Cup'ig clothing for the Nunivak Cup'ig-speaking people of Nunivak Island. Northern (Inupiat) and southern (Yup'ik) seamstresses had different styles of needle cases. She never voiced a discouraging word. Bit in an Inuit drill; bow drill and by extrention all drill bits. The men's boots don't really have decorations. The main body of these caps, worn at dances, was usually made of squirrel skins with a crown and borders of white reindeer fawn skin. , Nunivaarmiut Cup'ig bird skin and feather parkas are alpacurrlugar (murre skin and feather parka) made from Uria aalge skin with feathers, cigurat atkut (guillemot skin and feather parka) made from Cepphus columba skin with feathers, alpacurrlugar (auklet skin and feather parka) made from the white part of the Aethia cristatella skin with feathers, qilangar (puffin skin and feather parka) made from Fratercula corniculata skin with feathers, aarraangiarat (oldsquaw skin and feather parka) made from Clangula hyemalis skin with feathers, metrar (eider skin and feather parka) made from Somateria mollissima skin with feathers, tengaurtet (kittiwake skin and feather parka) made from Rissa tridactyla skin with feathers (used as camouflage for sliding over the ice to sneak up on game). A baby's boots were always made with the fur inside but otherwise were similar in construction to adult boots. , The primary subsistence activity for the Yup'ik is fishing, though hunting supplements the food supply and provides skins for clothing. Women made most clothing of caribou (wild caribou Rangifer tarandus granti and domestic reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and sealskin. , Semi-conical open Hunting hat or bentwood visor, wooden visor, hunting visor (elqiaq, ciayaq in Yup'ik and Cup'ik, elqiar, caguyag in Cup'ig, also caguyaq in Sugpiaq ~ Alutiiq, originally borrowed from Aleut ~ Unangan chagudax̂ (Eastern) chaxudax̂ (Western) during the Russian America era) is semi-conical shaped bentwood men's hunting hat decorated with feathers or traditional wooden visor to protect the eyes from the sun's glare, eyeshade.  The boots were lined with grass in the bottom and were worn with woven grass socks.  Approximately half of the fur traders were Russians such as promyshlenniki from various European parts of the Russian Empire or from Siberia.  The common puffin is smaller, so six knots and four extra skins were required for a man's parka, five knots and four extra for a woman's.  Traditional Yup'ik oral stories (qulirat and qanemcit) were embedded in many social functions of the society.  Nunivaarmiut Cup'ig wolf head caps, which consisted of an entire head skin including ears and nose, were also worn at ceremonies. , Winter boots are made with depilated soles of bearded seal and leg sections of haired ringed or spotted seal. The hide cut in a spiral pattern producing a long narrow strip of babiche is aqsarqelleq (in Unaliq-Pastuliq Yup'ik).  An important and common Yup’ik measure is the "knuckle", which forms the basis for constructing a square, which can be transformed into geometrically pleasing patterns that adorn squirrel parkas or become the basis of circles used for ceremonial headdresses. Female versions also may include a skirt of varying length (making the garment more technically a dress rather than a top), or may have no skirt at all. The caribou, moose, and beluga whale tendons were made sinew used for thread to sew with.  Snow goggles are an ancient element of Eskimo hunting cultures, appearing in archaeological sites up to 2000 years old.. Also, the word mukluk (Yu’pik/Inuit boot, a soft knee-high boot of seal or caribou skin) which is derived from the Yup'ik word maklak meaning bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus).  It may have a full-zippered front opening, or pull over the head like an original anorak and close with snaps or a short zipper, has an integral hood, and elasticated or drawstring cuffs.  The tendons of large animals such as wild caribou (tuntu) and semi-domesticated reindeer (qusngiq), moose (tuntuvak), and beluga whale (cetuaq) (also, for other non-Yup'ik regions of Indigenous peoples of the North America: big horn sheep, black-tailed and white-tailed deer, elk or wapiti, and bison or buffalo) were used for sinew. . In 1984, The Observer used the term to refer to the type of people who wore it and subsequently, in the United Kingdom, it is sometimes used as a mildly derogatory term.. A cagoule is the British English term for a lightweight, weatherproof anorak or parka, usually unlined and sometimes knee-length. Parka (atkuk sg atkuuk dual atkuut pl in Yukon-Kuskokwim, Bristol Bay and Hooper Bay-Chevak dialects, atekuk in Unaliq-Pastuliq dialect, atkug in Nunivak dialect) is the most common Yup'ik clothing. The fur ruff on the hood is also fixed to the shell of an EX-48/M-48 and is of wolf, coyote or often wolverine. Traditionally, fur trousers are worn by men and women, although today more and more Yup'ik wear pants made of woven materials. Feathers may have been added to assist the transformation of hunters into birds, as described in oral tradition. To make a visor a craftsman used hot water to soften the wood, then bent it around and stitched the ends together with sinew, baleen, or split root. The sunshine ruff is made to resemble the rays of the sun beaming from one's face.  Four basic designs are used for women's fancy parkas among the Yup'ik, with some regional variations, including one style adopted from Iñupiaq skin sewers. The EX-48 parka is distinctive as it has a left sleeve pocket and is made of thin poplin, only the later production M-48 parkas are made of the heavier sateen canvas type cotton. The fishtail parka was first used by the United States Army in 1950 during the Korean War. It gained the common name of "snorkel parka" because the hood can be zipped right up leaving only a small tunnel (or snorkel) for the wearer to look out of. Some Inuit anoraks require regular coating with fish oil to retain their water resistance. Every year, one could afford to make a bird skin parka because birds returned in such abundance. It is worn by both men and women, but men usually wear a kuspuk only for ceremonial such as Eskimo dancing (yuraq) or formal occasions, while for women it is common casual clothing, even among non-Yup'iks. Mink and fox skins were also utilized in the past, the latter occasionally for the ruff since it was too thin to be durable enough for men's parkas. Yup'ik footwear, especially Eskimo skinboots, known as mukluk, like other Eskimo groups, meets the challenge of weather, season, terrain and function with maximum efficiency, comfort and durability.  Yup’ik parkas told the legend of this great warrior. “It’s going to be my number one memory.” (Atigi is the Inuktitut word for “parka,” and Gordon was one of 14 seamstresses the company commissioned to create bespoke jackets for this exclusive collection.) Amber Lincoln, with John Goodwin, Pearl Goodwin, Faye Ongtowasruk, Ron Senungetuk, Barbara Weyiouanna (2010). , Before the arrival of the Russian fur traders (promyshlennikis), caribou and beaver skins were used for traditional clothing but subsequently, the Eskimos were persuaded to sell most furs and substitute manufactured materials. Designed primarily for combat arms forces such as infantry, they are to be worn over other layers of clothing; alone, the fishtail parka is insufficient to protect against "dry cold" conditions (i.e.  The Yup'ik fur and skin clothing, like other Eskimo groups, is a key factor in ensuring their survival in the northernmost reaches of the globe. Reindeer fawn and dog puppy skin parkas, with the fur inside, were made for babies (irniaq) and small children (mikelnguq). The Yup'ik preferred bone or ivory needle cases made with stoppers at each end. Child's mitten of any sort is aritvacuar or aritvacuarar (in Cup'ig). During the years 1799–1867, the number of Russians averaged 550 persons. They used them for traveling when they wore parkas without hoods. The early M-51 was made of heavy sateen cotton, the same material as the M-48. kinauvi- who are you? Walrus or bearded seal intestines were considered better materials for rain parkas than the intestines of small seals. , Steambath cap or feather sweatbath cap, firebath hat (maqissuun in Yup'ik and Cup'ik, maqissun in Cup'ig) is a headgear worn in steambath (maqivik) or other gear used in sweatbath. Fall, James A.; Chythlook, Molly; Schichnes, Janet; Sinnott, Rick (October 1991). Sole of boot (alu ~ aluq sg aluk dual alut pl [also means sole of foot] in Yup'ik and Cup'ik, atungar in Cup'ig) is the bottom of a boot, in contact with the ground. The last step was to scrape off the scales.  Women's tools include ulu, scraper, scraping board, needle, needle case, thimble, and pattern. Used widely as trim on parka hoods, cuffs and collars, it readily sheds frost that would otherwise build up from steaming breath. japa- parka kablu- eyebrow kakiaq- fork kakivak- a fish spear kamik- sealskin boot kamotik- dog sled (also spelled qamutik) Kangiqliniq- Inuktitut word for Rankin Inlet kayak- qajaq kiinaujaq- money kina- who? Both men's and women's parka hoods were finished with a large hood cover, known as "sunshine ruff" or "sunburst ruff" made from strips of wolverine and fox. This conical bentwood hats worn by men for when hunting seals amid floating sea ice during spring seal hunting and during the Bladder Festival (Nakaciuryaraq), when the souls of seals are returned to the sea. Michael W. Coffing, Louis Brown, Gretchen Jennings and Charles J. Utermohle (2001). It did not appear in English until 1924; an early definition is "a beaded item worn by Greenland women or brides in the 1930s". Manteau Inuit authentique, vintage 1958, fait à la main, avec vraie fourrure autour du capuchon. Storyknifing (yaaruilta literally "let's go story knife!") McKinley Meat & Sausage Company, Review & Recommendations, "Muskox, (Ovibos moschatus) US Fish & Wildlife Service", The Subsistence Harvest and Use of Wild Resources in Akiachak, Alaska, 1998, Atlas of United States Trees, Volume 2. Ulus are made in different sizes depending upon the task for which they are intended. The M-65 fishtail parka has a detachable hood and was the last revision. , Other Nunivaarmiut Cup'ig parkas are, kinguqaleg (woman's fur parka cut high on the sides so that there are front and back flaps), qatrin (white camouflaged parka), qutngug (sealskin parka), and ellangrat (parka made of strips of bleached sealskin and gut or fishskin) or langrat (vertical design or designs made from fish skin on a parka).. Today's Inuit seamstresses often make apparel, such as this beautiful amauti (parka), of furs in combination with woven materials. , In addition to being addressed as kin by one's namesake's relations, a person Continues a special relationship with these people. Woven seashore grass liners went inside for warmth. Manteau Inuit authentique, vintage 1958, fait à la main, avec vraie fourrure autour du capuchon. Ce parka 3 dans 1 peut être porté comme coquille extérieure seulement, laine de couverture seulement, ou coquille sur la laine de couverture. Yup'ik soles are traditionally made of bearded seal skin which is usually chewed to make it moldable.  Fancy parka a very important component of Yup'ik culture. Yup’ik designers use linear patterns for parka borders (parka bottoms and sleeves), headbands, and boots. This parka is very long by comparison with Canadian Inuit parkas, with an even lower edge. In Europe the snorkel parka started to regain popularity in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Bitch (female dog) — Annaligiak. The nat'raq (in Yup'ik, nateraq in Unaliq-Pastuliq dialect) a special oversole of skin boot used to prevent slipping on ice. These tendons are usually sliced off the long muscles on either side of the spine of a caribou or beluga whale.